Periodic Table

Sponsored Links

Periodic Table & Modern Periodic Table of Elements, Periodic Table Groups:

What is the Periodic Table?

Periodic Table:

Periodic table is the arrangement of elements in a tabular format. These elements are arranged according to their atomic number, atomic mass & their chemical and physical properties.

History of Periodic Table:

A scientist called Lavoisier in 17th century classified the invented elements into metals and non-metals. Later the discovery of a large number of elements Lavoisier classification elements into small groups was not convenient. In the year 1803 John Dalton published a table of relative atomic weights and that table of elements became the base for the classification of elements.

In the year 1817, Dobereiner classified elements in the group of three and called them Triad, Triad- in which the middle element of the three elements have the atomic mass almost nearly equal to the arithmetic mean of the other two elements. But when coming to the increasing order of atomic masses Dobereiner could identify only three triads from the total elements known at that time.

In the year 1866, J.A.R Newlands proposed a new table grouping of elements with similar properties, in this table, J.A.R Newlands started with the element with low atomic mass i.e. hydrogen and he completed the table at Thorium which was the 56th element. But J.A.R Newlands table was relevant only for lighter elements.

Sponsored Links

Periodic Classification of Elements:

Periodic classification of elements is classified in such a way that the elements which are having similar properties are grouped together in the same vertical column. And the elements with different properties are placed in different vertical columns.

Mendeleev’s Periodic Table:

A Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev arranged elements on the basis of their atomic mass, fundamental properties, and chemical properties. At that time only 63 elements were known, Mendeleev examined the relationship between the atomic masses, physical properties and chemical properties of those 63 elements. Coming to the chemical properties of the elements Mendeleev concentrated on the compounds formed by the elements with Oxygen and Hydrogen. He selected Oxygen and Hydrogen because they are very reactive and formed compounds with most of the elements present at that time. Such formed oxides and hydrides by an element were treated as one of the basic properties.

Mendeleev arranged the elements in a group with similar properties, at the same time he observed that the elements were automatically arranged in the order of increasing atomic masses. Basing on this concept Mendeleev formulated a periodic law, and the law states that the properties of the elements are the periodic function of their atomic masses. When the elements are arranged in the order of their increasing atomic masses, the elements with similar properties are repeated at a certain regular interval. And this repletion of similar properties at regular intervals is called periodicity of properties.

Mendeleev Periodic Table Characteristics:

Mendeleev periodic table consists of seven horizontal rows called as periods. And these periods are numbered from 1 to 7.

Vertical columns present in the periodic table are called as groups. And these groups are named I to VIII.

These groups are again divided into 2 subgroups and these subgroups are designated as A&B.

Sub group A – Normal elements or representative elements.

Subgroup B – Transition elements.

Note:

  • Group VIII will not have any subgroups.
  • VIII group has transition elements in 3 sets. And each set is containing 3 transition elements.

What is a Period?

Horizontal columns present in the periodic table are called as periods. There are 7 periods in the periodic table. And these periods are designated as 1 to 7.

What is a Group?

The Vertical columns present in the periodic table are called Groups. There are 8 groups in the periodic table. And these 8 groups are designated with I to VIII. Except VIII group every group is divided into 2 subgroups and they are called A & B.

Sponsored Links

Mendeleev Periodic Table Image:

Mendeleev’s periodic table was published in a German journal in the year 1872.

Group I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Oxide R2O RO R2O3 RO2 R2O5 RO3 R2O7 RO4
Hydride RH RH2 RH3 RH4 RH3 RH2 RH
Periods A              B A                  B A           B A         B A          B A          B A        B
1 H

1.008

2 Li

6.939

Be

9.012

B

10.81

C

12.011

N

14.007

O

15.999

F

18.998

3 Na

22.99

Mg

24.30

Al

29.98

Si

28.09

P

30.974

S

32.06

Cl

35.453

4 First Series K

39.102

Ca

40.08

 

Sc

44.96

Ti

47.90

V

50.94

Cr

50.20

Mn

54.94

Fe         Co          Ni

55.85  58.93  58.71

4 Second Series Cu

63.54

Zn

65.37

Ga

69.72

Ge

72.59

As

74.92

Se

78.96

Br

79.909

5 First Series

 

Rb

85.47

Sr

87.62

Y

88.91

Zr

91.22

Nb

92.91

Mo

95.94

Tc

99

Ru         Rh          Pd

101.07 102.91  106.4

5 Second Series Ag

107.87

Cd

112.40

In

114.82

Sn

118.69

Sb

121.75

Te

127.60

I

126.90

6 First Series Cs

132.90

Ba

137.34

La

138.91

Hf

178.49

Ta

180.95

W

183.85

Os         Ir          Pt

190.2  192.2  195.09

6 Second Series Au

196.97

Hg

200.59

Tl

204.37

Pb

207.19

Bi

208.98

Note:

R – Represents the elements in the group.

Eg: CH4 as RH4,   CO2 as RO2.

Sponsored Links

Modern Periodic Table:

In the year 1913, Henry Moseley proved that the atomic number of an element is a more fundamental property than its atomic mass. The properties of elements are the periodic function of the element atomic number. Therefore if the elements are arranged in the order of their increasing atomic numbers automatically the elements with similar chemical and physical properties are repeated after certain regular intervals. Such repletion of properties is called as periodicity.

Periodic Table Groups:

The vertical columns present in the periodic table are called groups. There are 18 vertical columns present in the modern periodic table. Each group is framed in such a way that the elements with the same outermost shell (valence shell) electronic configuration.

Out of 18 groups each group consists of elements with the same number of valence electrons. And these groups are numbered from 1 to 18.

Group 1:

Group 1 elements are called Alkali metals. Group 1 contains 7 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-1 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Element Atomic Mass
1 Hydrogen H 1 1.0
2 Lithium Li 3 6.9
3 Sodium Na 11 23.0
4 Potassium K 19 39.1
5 Rubidium Rb 37 85.5
6 Cesium Cs 55 132.9
7 Francium Fr 87 223

Group2:

Group2 elements are called as Alkaline earth metals. Group 2 contains 6 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-2 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Element Atomic Mass
1 Beryllium Be 4 9.0
2 Magnesium Mg 12 24.3
3 Calcium Ca 20 40.1
4 Strontium Sr 38 87.6
5 Barium Ba 56 137.3
6 Radium Ra 88 226

Group3:

Group3 elements are called Transition elements. Group 3 contains 4 transition elements and they are:

Sponsored Links

Periodic Table Group-3 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Scandium Sc 21 45.0
2 Yttrium Y 39 88.9
3 Lanthanum La* 57 138.9
4 Actinium AC** 89 227

Group 4:

Group 4 elements are called Transition elements. Group 4 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-4 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Titanium Ti 22 47.8
2 Zirconium Zr 40 91.2
3 Hafnium Hf 72 178.5
4 Rf Rf 104

Group 5:

Group 5 elements are called Transition elements. Group 5 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-5 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Vanadium V 23 50.9
2 Niobium Nb 41 92.9
3 Tantalum Ta 73 181.0
4 Db Db 105

Group 6:

Group 6 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 6 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-6 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Chromium Cr 24 52.0
2 Molybdenum Mo 42 95.9
3 Tungsten W 74 183.9
4 Sg Sg 106

Group 7:

Group 7 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 7 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-7 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Manganese Mn 25 54.9
2 Technetium Tc 43 99
3 Rhenium Re 75 186.2
4 Bh Bh 107

Group 8:

Group 8 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 8 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-8 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Iron Fe 26 55.9
2 Ruthenium Ru 44 101.1
3 Osmium Os 75 190.2
4 Hs Hs 108

Group 9:

Group 9 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 9 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-9 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Cobalt Co 27 58.9
2 Rhodium Rh 45 102.3
3 Iridium Ir 77 190.2
4 Mt Mt 109

Group 10:

Group 10 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 10 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-10 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Nickel Ni 28 58.7
2 Palladium Pd 46 106.4
3 Platinum Pt 78 195.1
4 Ds Ds 110

Group 11:

Group 11 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 11 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Sponsored Links

Periodic Table Group-11 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Copper Cu 29 63.5
2 Silver Ag 47 107.9
3 Gold Au 79 197.0
4 Rg Rg 111

Group 12:

Group 12 elements are called as Transition elements. Group 12 contains 3 transition elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-12 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Transition Element Atomic Mass
1 Zinc Zn 30 65.4
2 Cadmium Cd 48 112.4
3 Mercury Hg 80 200.6
4 Uub Uub 112

Group 13:

Group 13 contains 5 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-13 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Element Atomic Mass
1 Boran B 5 10.8
2 Aluminum Al 13 27.0
3 Gallium Ga 31 69.7
4 Indium In 49 114.8
5 Thallium Tl 81 204.4

Group 14:

Group 14 contains 5 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-14 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Element Atomic Mass
1 Carbon C 4 12.0
2 Silicon Si 14 28.1
3 Germanium Ge 32 72.6
4 Tin Sn 50 118.7
5 Lead Pb 82 207.2

Group 15:

Group 15 elements are called as Pnictogens elements. Group 15 contains 5 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-15 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Pnictogen Element Atomic Mass
1 Nitrogen N 7 14.0
2 Phosphorous P 15 31.0
3 Arsenic AS 33 74.9
4 Antimony Sb 51 121.8
5 Bismuth Bi 83 209.0

Group 16:

Group 16 elements are called as Chalcogens. Group 16 contains 5 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-16 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Chalcogen Element Atomic Mass
1 Oxygen O 8 16.0
2 Sulphur S 16 32.1
3 Selenium Se 34 79.0
4 Tellurium Te 52 127.6
5 Polonium Po 84 210

Group 17:

Group 17 elements are called as Halogens. Group 17 contains 5 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-17 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Halogen Element Atomic Mass
1 Fluorine F 9 19.0
2 Chlorine Cl 17 35.5
3 Bromine Br 35 79.9
4 Iodine I 53 126.9
5 Astatine At 85 210

Group 18:

Group 18 elements are called as Noble gases. Group 18 contains 6 elements and they are:

Periodic Table Group-18 Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Noble Gas Element Atomic Mass
1 Helium He 2 4.0
2 Neon Ne 10 20.2
3 Argon Ar 18 39.9
4 Krypton Kr 36 83.8
5 Xenon Xe 54 131.3
6 Radon Rn 86 222

Periods:

The horizontal rows present in the periodic table are called as periods. They are 7 periods in the periodic table. The elements in each period contain the same number of occupied shells.

Lanthanides:

There are 14 lanthanides in the periodic table and they are:

Periodic Table Lanthanides Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Element Atomic Mass
1 Cerium Ce 58 104.1
2 Praseodymium Pr 59 140.9
3 Neodymium Nd 60 144.2
4 Promethium Pm 61 145
5 Samarium Sm 62 150.4
6 Europium Eu 63 152.0
7 Gadolinium Gd 64 157.3
8 Terbium Tb 65 158.9
9 Dysprosium Dy 66 162.5
10 Holmium Ho 67 164.9
11 Erbium Er 68 167.3
12 Thulium Tm 69 168.9
13 Ytterbium Yb 70 173.0
14 Lutetium Lu 71 175.5

Actinides:

There are 14 lanthanides in the periodic table and they are:

Periodic Table Lanthanides Elements with Atomic number, Atomic Mass & Chemical Formula

S.NO Name of the Element Chemical Formula of the Element Number of the Element Atomic Mass
1 Thorium 90 Th 232.0
2 Protactinium 91 Pa 231
3 Uranium 92 U 238.1
4 Neptunium 93 Np 237
5 Plutonium 94 Pu 242
6 Americium 95 Am 243
7 Curium 96 Cm 247
8 Berkelium 97 Bk 245
9 Californium 98 Cf 251
10 Einsteinium 99 Es 254
11 Fermium 100 Fm 253
12 Mendelevium 101 Md 256
13 Nobelium 102 No 254
14 Lawrencium 103 Lr 257

Elements Present in each Period:

Period wise Elements

S.NO Name of the Period Number of elements present in each period
1 1 2
2 2 8
3 3 8
4 4 18
5 5 18
6 6 32
7 7 28

Download Periodic Table:

Periodic Table Download

Printable Periodic Table:

Print Periodic Table